Liu, X., & Sun, Z. (2005). Age of attaining nocturnal bladder control and adolescent suicidal behavior. Journal of Affective Disorders, 87(2/3), 281-289. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.010
Abstract: Background: Nocturnal enuresis and delayed attainment of nocturnal bladder control are associated with increased risk for psychopathology in children and adolescents. It has long been known that psychopathology is a major risk factor for youth suicide. However, no studies have examined the association between the age of attainment of nocturnal bladder control and adolescent suicidal behavior. Methods: A community sample of 1920 adolescents aged 11–16 years from one prefecture of mainland China participated in the study. Parents completed a structured questionnaire including adolescents'' developmental history, suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, aggressive behavior, and family environment. Results: Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that attaining nocturnal bladder control after 3 years was significantly associated with increased risk for adolescent suicidal behavior, after controlling for a number of child and family covariates. A dose–response relationship between the age of attaining nocturnal bladder control and suicidal behavior was observed (OR=2.1 for children attaining bladder control at 3–4 years and OR=3.6 for children attaining bladder control at 5 years or later). Mediating models indicated that depression and aggressive behavior mediated, at least in part, the effect of delayed nocturnal bladder control on suicidal behavior. Limitations: This is retrospective study. Suicidal behaviors were reported by parents. Conclusions: Delayed nocturnal bladder control may be an earlier neurodevelopmental predictor of youth suicidal behavior. Further research is suggested to explore earlier neurodevelopmental risk factors and potential mechanisms of youth suicidal behavior. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Probst, P., Asam, U., & Frantz, E. E. (1980). Psychosocial adjustment of adults with encopresis in childhood and adolescence: A follow-up study. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 8(2), 135-149. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Conducted a follow-up study on 30 adults (25 males, 5 females; mean age 28 yrs) who had been seen in a university clinic for childhood encopresis. Half the Ss had grown up in 1-parent families, and only 14% recalled their fathers as having been highly interested in them. Ss' problems in early experience did not relate in any clear pattern to later psychosocial development; those with successful marriages reported this as compensating for early problems. In adulthood, 12 had psychosocial problems: one with occasional incontinence, one with occasional enuresis, 7 depressed (including 4 who had attempted suicide), and 3 with sexual disturbances. Two were moderately learning-impaired, one had psychosomatic problems, and one had delinquency problems. The adult personalities in general tended toward extraversion, inhibition of aggressiveness, low self-assurance, psychosomatic problems, low emotional stability, downward social mobility, social isolation, and occupational dissatisfaction. (English abstract) (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)